Acute cholecystitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones that obstruct the cystic duct. However, it is essential to consider other potential causes through a process known as differential diagnosis. By exploring various conditions that can mimic acute cholecystitis symptoms, healthcare professionals can provide appropriate treatment and avoid misdiagnosis.
1. Biliary colic
Gallstones can cause biliary colic, leading to similar symptoms as acute cholecystitis. However, in biliary colic, the gallbladder is not inflamed.
This condition occurs when gallstones pass into the common bile duct, obstructing it and causing symptoms resembling acute cholecystitis.
Inflammation of the liver due to viral infection or other causes can present with abdominal pain and mimic symptoms of acute cholecystitis.
Inflammation of the pancreas can cause epigastric pain that radiates towards the right upper quadrant, overlapping with symptoms of acute cholecystitis.
5. Peptic ulcer disease
Ulcers in the stomach or duodenum may occasionally manifest as right-sided abdominal pain, leading to confusion in diagnosing acute cholecystitis.
The inflammation of the appendix commonly causes right lower quadrant pain but may extend towards the right upper quadrant, making it necessary to rule out appendicitis in suspected cases of acute cholecystitis.
Stomach inflammation or gastrointestinal infections can result in abdominal discomfort that might be mistakenly attributed to acute cholecystitis if not thoroughly evaluated.
8. Perforated peptic ulcer
If a peptic ulcer perforates, it can cause sudden and severe abdominal pain that may mimic acute cholecystitis symptoms.
Infection in the kidneys can manifest as flank pain and fever, sometimes leading to confusion in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis.
10. Pneumonia: Lower lobe pneumonia on the right side can cause right upper quadrant pain, overlapping with symptoms of acute cholecystitis.
Differential diagnosis plays a crucial role in identifying the underlying cause of acute cholecystitis accurately. While gallstones obstructing the cystic duct remain a primary consideration, healthcare professionals must consider other potential causes such as biliary colic, choledocholithiasis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer disease, appendicitis, gastritis/gastroenteritis, perforated peptic ulcer, pyelonephritis, and pneumonia. Thorough evaluation and proper diagnostic techniques are vital to ensure prompt and appropriate treatment for patients suffering from acute cholecystitis or its mimicking conditions.