Oral pathology, a branch of dentistry, is concerned with the diagnosis and management of diseases and disorders that affect the oral and maxillofacial regions. Oral pathologists use various techniques to identify diseases such as biopsy, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This article aims to unravel the mysteries of oral pathology through case studies.
A 45-year-old patient presented with a painful swelling on the right side of his face. Intraoral examination revealed a small ulcer with irregular borders on the hard palate. An incisional biopsy was performed, which showed squamous cell carcinoma.
Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies in the oral cavity and can arise from any area of the oral mucosa. The prognosis depends on various factors such as size, location, stage at presentation, and overall health status.
A 30-year-old woman presented with a painless swelling in the lower jaw that had been present for several months. Radiographic examination revealed an ill-defined radiolucency involving the premolar and molar regions. An incisional biopsy was performed, which showed ameloblastoma.
Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic tumor that arises from cells responsible for enamel formation during tooth development. It usually presents as a slow-growing painless swelling in the mandible or maxilla. Treatment involves surgical excision with clear margins due to its high recurrence rate.
A 50-year-old male smoker presented with a white patch on his tongue that had been present for several months. Clinical examination revealed a thickened leukoplakic lesion on the lateral border of his tongue. A biopsy was performed, which showed severe dysplasia.
Leukoplakia is a clinical term used to describe white patches or plaques that cannot be scraped off and are not associated with any specific disease. However, some cases of leukoplakia can transform into squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors for malignant transformation include smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
Oral pathology is a crucial part of dentistry that involves the diagnosis and management of various diseases and disorders affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. Biopsy, imaging studies, and laboratory tests are some of the techniques used to identify diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma, ameloblastoma, and leukoplakia are some examples of oral pathology case studies discussed in this article. Early detection and timely intervention are essential for favorable treatment outcomes.